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Jesus birthplace bethlehemАвтор: Mokazahn | Category: Kraken crypto radar | Октябрь 2, 2012
Located in the holy city of Bethlehem, the Church of the Nativity, a Byzantine basilica, was built on top of the cave where, according to a. The West Bank city of Bethlehem, about 9km south of Jerusalem, is celebrated by Christians as the birthplace of Jesus Christ. UNESCO World Heritage Site. Official name: Birthplace of Jesus: the Church of the Nativity and the Pilgrimage Route, Bethlehem ; UNESCO World Heritage Site. BRASKI BITCOINS
For we have seen His star in the East and have come to worship Him. Jesus came to earth to live with us and to be one of us. That's the miracle of what happened at Bethlehem. Other Information About Bethlehem Today, the little town of Bethlehem lies in the limestone hill country of the Holy Land about six miles south of Jerusalem.
The birthplace of Jesus attracts some 2 million visitors each year. Crowds of tourists are especially large at Christmas. Lines are long; hotels and other lodgings are sold out. In , the Cretan painter Jeremias Palladas was commissioned by the Greek Patriarch to paint new icons to embellish the church. Further works were made in on the initiative of Patriarch Dositheos II. In , Dositheos managed to gain control also of the nave, and promoted restorations of the floor and the roof, as well as the making of a new iconostasis.
The Franciscans were restored in their rights in , but they lose their hegemony once again in , when the Greek Orthodox were granted full ownership of the upper church and the authorization to keep the keys to the grotto. Afterwards, a redecoration of the church was promoted: the nave was newly paved, the bema was provided with a solemn iconostasis and a wooden baldachin was erected over the main altar. As a result, the Ottomans issued firmans essentially reversing their earlier decision, renouncing the French treaty, and restoring to the Orthodox Christians the sovereign authority over the churches of the Holy Land for the time being, thus increasing local tensions—and all this fuelled the conflict between the Russian and the Ottoman empires over the control of holy sites around the region.
Twentieth century to the present[ edit ] Interior of the basilica in the s The facade, ca. Jerome's Cave and the Cave of the Nativity was expanded in February , allowing easier access for visitors. American businessman Stanley Slotkin was visiting at the time and purchased a quantity of the limestone rubble, more than a million irregular fragments about 5 mm 0. He sold them to the public encased in plastic crosses, and they were advertised in infomercials in Christians in the church gave refuge to the fighters, giving them food, water, and protection from Israeli military forces stationed outside.
Israeli media claimed that the Christians inside were being held hostage,  however, parishioners inside the church say they and the church were treated with respect. The site was approved under criteria four and six. Many roof timbers are rotting, and have not been replaced since the 19th century.
The rainwater that seeps into the building not only accelerates the rotting of the wood and damages the structural integrity of the building, but also damages the 12th-century wall mosaics and paintings. The influx of water also means that there is an ever-present chance of an electrical fire.
If another earthquake were to occur on the scale of the one of , the result would most likely be catastrophic. It is hoped that the listing will encourage its preservation, including getting the three custodians of the church—the Greek Orthodox Church, the Armenian Orthodox Church, and the Franciscan order—to work together, which has not happened for hundreds of years. The Israeli government and the Palestinian Authority would also have to work together to protect it. In the following year, an international consortium team of experts from different Universities, under the supervision of Prof.
Claudio Alessandri University of Ferrara, Italy , was given the task of planning and coordinating the restoration works. Logistics and organisation[ edit ] In , the Palestinian Authority announced that a multimillion-dollar restoration programme was imminent.
The works came to an end in Discoveries[ edit ] Italian restoration workers uncovered a seventh surviving mosaic angel in July , which was previously hidden under plaster. The Grotto of the Nativity is situated right underneath the chancel, with the silver star at its eastern end top side of the plan. North is to the left The centrepiece of the Nativity complex is the Grotto of the Nativity, a cave which enshrines the site where Jesus is said to have been born.
The core of the complex connected to the Grotto consists of the Church of the Nativity itself, and the adjoining Roman Catholic Church of St. Catherine north of it. Outer courtyard[ edit ] Bethlehem's main city square, Manger Square , is an extension of the large paved courtyard in front of the Church of the Nativity and St Catherine's. Here crowds gather on Christmas Eve to sing Christmas carols in anticipation of the midnight services.
Basilica of the Nativity[ edit ] Interior—northern aisles left and chancel right —before the latest renovations The chancel with gilded iconostasis The main Basilica of the Nativity is maintained by the Greek Orthodox Patriarchate of Jerusalem. It is designed like a typical Roman basilica, with five aisles formed by Corinthian columns , and an apse in the eastern end containing the sanctuary.
The basilica is entered through a very low door called the "Door of Humility. A complex array of sanctuary lamps is placed throughout the entire building. The open ceiling exposes the wooden rafters, recently restored. The previous 15th-century restoration used beams donated by King Edward IV of England , who also donated lead to cover the roof; however, this lead was taken by the Ottoman Turks , who melted it down for ammunition to use in war against Venice.
Stairways on either side of the chancel lead down to the Grotto. Grotto of the Nativity[ edit ] Grotto of the Nativity, fourteen-point silver star under the main altar marking the traditional spot of Jesus' birth The Grotto of the Nativity, the place where Jesus is said to have been born, is an underground space which forms the crypt of the Church of the Nativity.
It is situated underneath its main altar, and it is normally accessed by two staircases on either side of the chancel. The grotto is part of a network of caves, which are accessed from the adjacent Church St Catherine's. The tunnel-like corridor connecting the Grotto to the other caves is normally locked. The cave has an eastern niche said to be the place where Jesus was born, which contains the Altar of Nativity.
It was installed by the Catholics in , removed — allegedly by the Greeks — in , and replaced by the Turkish government in The star is set into the marble floor and surrounded by 15 silver lamps representing the three Christian communities: six belong to the Greek Orthodox, four to the Catholics, and five to the Armenian Apostolic. The significance of the 14 points on the star is to represent the three sets of 14 generations in the genealogy of Jesus Christ.
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However, this is an argument from silence. Our record of Palestinian history during the time of Herod is far from exhaustive. Josephus provides most of the extant information, but he was quite selective in what he recorded and wrote almost a century after the events.
Judea was a client kingdom of Rome, which means Herod was responsible for collecting his own taxes and paying tribute to Rome. The main responsibilities of this official included recording census information and statistics about property and taxation. Jesus was born in Bethlehem and raised in Nazareth. According to Matthew and Luke , Jesus was born in Bethlehem and returned later to Nazareth where he was raised Matt ; Luke The wise men visited Bethlehem to worship Jesus.
Remarkably, these magoi had been guided by their astronomical observations. They may have also come from Persia or Arabia. This is not the first time, however, that Jerusalem entertained special guests from the east. The Queen of Sheba visited Jerusalem to pay homage to Solomon by bringing gifts of gold, spices, and precious stones 1 Kgs — Her visit foreshadows that of the magoi. In this regard, the magoi stand within a larger biblical trajectory of Gentile dignitaries visiting Jerusalem to pay homage to the son of David.
The story of the wise men identifies Jesus as the greater Son of David whom even Gentiles worship. All quotations from Scripture are taken from the English Standard Version. Great urban pressure is acknowledged in the surrounding urban areas, to which largely unregulated tourism and traffic contribute. New constructions, some large, are disturbing the traditional urban fabric near the Church of the Nativity and are having a negative impact on views to and from the property ,and on its sense of place and spiritual associations.
Authenticity Located on the spot believed to be the Birthplace of Jesus Christ for some years, the Church of the Nativity is one of the most sacred Christian sites in the world since at least the 4th century AD up to the present. The sanctity of the site is maintained by the three churches occupying it.
The construction of the church in AD above the grotto, and its reconstruction in AD, commemorates the birth of Jesus and attests to seventeen hundred years-long tradition of belief that this grotto was indeed the birthplace of Jesus Christ.
The association of the place that was believed to be the birthplace of Jesus is documented from the 4th century AD and from then on the buildings added to it have been constructed to enhance this religious significance. The majority of the existing church today dates beck to the 6th century AD, but retains part of the 4th century floor and some parts of its walls and columns, and have 12th century and later additions that are obvious in the icon painting on the columns of the church.
The 12th century additions reflect the Crusades that led to one of the upsurges in pilgrimage activity. From medieval times the church has been supported by monastic communities for which there is strong material evidence. The buildings of one of the monastic complexes date back to at least the 12th century while there is evidence under the others for earlier monastic buildings dating to the 12th century.
Apart from the Armenian Convent, most of their current apparent structures date from the 19th and 20th centuries. All elements of the church associated with the original church, its re-building in the 6th century, and its alterations in the 12th century need to be clearly identified and a conservation plan agreed to ensure repair and restoration respect as much as possible of the existing fabric that is crucial to understanding its significance.
The Church of the Nativity and its monastic complexes and the town of Bethlehem developed in tandem over the centuries. The current lack of control of development, traffic and tourism in the immediate urban surroundings of the Church is threatening this relationship and the ability of the property to convey fully its spiritual links. The management is currently supplemented by an advisory committee formed by the Palestinian President. A technical plan for the restoration of the roof of the Church of the Nativity has been developed by the advisory committee that was formed by the Palestinian president in full cooperation with the three churches in charge of the church.
Intervention to restore the roof of the church was indicated as a priority by the international team who worked on the plan, and the works are expected to start during the year. A Conservation Strategy needs to be developed for the Church of the Nativity to guide the repair and restoration of the roof and future conservation interventions in order to optimise retention of the fabric relating to the 4th, 6th and 12th century interventions.
Such a Strategy should synthesize the conclusions of the detailed investigative reports into a clear statement of the significances of the various elements within a comprehensive conservation philosophy for the proposed work.
Conservation Plans also need to be developed for the other ecclesiastical buildings. Nevertheless stronger controls are needed to ensure that the urban context of the property is not eroded. This area is now an Area under Planning, and any interventions are forbidden until the adoption the conservation and management plan and the bylaws that are currently being prepared by CCHP in cooperation with Bethlehem Municipality and MoTA.
A Management Plan will be developed for the overall property by the Committee set up to oversee the roof repairs and this should define an overall management system for the property. This Plan needs to address the urban pressure on the property, tourism and traffic management, protection of views, and the conservation of buildings along the pilgrimage route. The Plan also needs to address the better management of visitors, as the provision of facilities for visitors are impacting adversely on the fabric of the surrounding town.
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