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Myzus forex chartsАвтор: Doujar | Category: Btts betting term ats | Октябрь 2, 2012
Overpopulation adversely affects food supplies, foreign exchange, and human resources. Moreover, it depresses savings per capita and retards growth of. It contributes substantially to the country's foreign exchange and Leaf area is manually recorded by using graph paper (Dey et al. According to Article 27 of the Foreign Exchange and Foreign Trade Law, the Government of. Japan is to make an inquiry on whether the. BET ON NHL PLAYOFFS
Aphididae Description of the Pest The common name varies and aphids may be referred to as black fly, greenfly, ant cows or plant lice. These small insects have soft globular body that is from 1mm to 8mm long and vary in colour from green, yellow, black and pink, with the winged forms being elongated. Both adult and nymphs, have piercing and sucking mouthparts. Aphids are found on buds, flowers, or leaves and stems, preferring soft new growth.
On older leaves the aphids are found in protected positions, such as under the leaf. Certain species of aphids form galls as they suck sap and may be found on the roots of the plant. Woolly aphids and Black peach aphids Most aphids possess a pair of characteristic tubular projections, known as cornicles; these secrete a pheromone and a waxy fluid, which is thought to protect them from some of their predacious enemies. White exoskeletons, honey dew and sooty mould indicate the presence of Aphids Balsam Twig Aphid Mindarus abietinus is greenish and covered in a white wax and is normally found on the young shoots of conifers bending and killing the needles.
It is found on Abies and Picea species. Aphid and their exoskeletons on underside of a leaf Black Citrus Aphid Toxoptera aurantii has a soft plump green body and the black coloured adults may or may not be winged. They feed in groups, curling leaves and producing honeydew attracting sooty mould. Green Peach Aphid Myzus persicae is a soft plump green insect up to 0.
The nymphs are yellowish green and are responsible for spreading viruses in Dianthus species. Spruce Gall Aphid Chermes abietis form cone shaped galls up to 12mm long resulting from the feeding. The wingless female adult lays eggs on the stems and the immature females overwinter on bud scales. Large infestation will weaken trees such as Picea abies and Pseudotsuga menziesii. Tulip Bulb Aphid Anuraphis tulipae is small, waxy grey coloured and infests the underside of the bulb scales or rhizomes.
They occur in the ground or on above ground parts and during storage. Life Cycle These insects have a Hemimetabolous life cycle, i. The nymphs resemble the adults. During spring all eggs produced hatch as female nymphs.
Adult Aphids are capable reproducing without fertilisation. The males are only produced in some species as the weather cools down, and the day length shortens. Aphids are capable of giving birth to living young and large populations build up quickly during summer. Over crowding causes the aphids to become smaller, less fertile and produce more winged forms that can migrate to other host plants. There are many different types of aphids and the life cycle varies from warm to cold climates.
Typical life cycles World wide Period of Activity In warm climates they are seen throughout the year, but aphids dislike hot dry or cold conditions and heavy rain will decrease the population. In cold areas aphid eggs are laid around a bud base or other protected areas of the plant during autumn and emerge as nymphs during spring, feeding on the new growth.
Numbers build up quickly in the warmer months of the year. Some species feed during winter on Sow thistles. Susceptible Plants There is a wide range of plants attacked, from roses to vegetables, shrubs and trees. Certain aphids attack a specific genus while others have a wide range of host plants. Many are capable of transmitting plant virus diseases.
Adults and nymphs feeding A colony of aphids Acer species are attacked by several aphids including the Norway Maple Aphid Periphyllus lyropictus which is a greenish with brown markings and secret honeydew, preferring Acer platanoides. Other aphids include Drepanaphis acerifolia and Periphyllus aceris which are commonly found on the underside of leaves. Acer species are also attacked by the Woolly Maple Aphid Phenacoccus acericola which covers the undersides of the leaves with a cotton-like mass Alnus species are infested with the Alder Blight Aphid Prociphilus tessellates which is blue-black adult that forms woolly masses on the down-turned leaves.
The United States or other countries have laws covering dietary supplements where the efficacy or preventive properties of the foods themselves are concerned, whereas Japan does not. Whether a product is a pharmaceutical is determined comprehensively based on type of ingredients, format formulation, package, wrapping, design , on labeling describing purpose of use, effects and efficacy, method of administration dosage and method of sales, instructions given when selling and so on, and decided according to whether people usually perceive that it is a product intended for the purposes described in the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law.
Standards are determined by the "standards concerning the scope of pharmaceuticals," a notice issued by the head of the bureau. Accordingly, even though a product may be sold in other countries as a food, it may come under the pharmaceuticals classification in Japan, depending on its formulation, ingredients.
Labeling concerning effects, efficacy and so on may also be regulated. In accordance with revisions made to the above standards, some products have begun to be handled not as pharmaceuticals but as foods, as follows: from March , some vitamins; from March , some herbs; from March , some minerals.
Accordingly, additives approved for use during the pharmaceuticals manufacturing process may not actually be allowed to be used in products classified as foods, since they are not designated as additives under the Food Sanitation Law. Additionally, vitamins and minerals, even if they are the principal ingredients in dietary supplements, may be regulated as food additives.
Complaint: 1 Legislation of the Definition of Certain Foods as Dietary Supplements and their System In order to do in Japan what is done for dietary supplements of the food category in the United States, the classification of dietary supplements and their system should be legislated.
The system of dietary supplements consists of many factors including ingredients, shapes, directions for use, exclusion of the ingredients of dietary supplements from the definition of food additives and health benefit claims and should be legislated as follows. In addition dietary substances such as glutathione, coenzyme Q and taurine should be excluded from the classification as substances to be solely used for drugs 1-a in the regulation, concerning the range of drugs, of the Medical and Pharmaceutical Safety Bureau.
They are constituents of foods and are used as an ingredient of dietary supplements in overseas markets. These health benefit claims should be excluded from the third definition of drugs of Pharmaceutical Affairs Law, which states that articles intended to affect the structure or any function of the body of man or other animals are drugs. The definition of food additives of the Food Sanitation Law states that additives are the stuff used in the process of manufacturing foods or for the purpose of processing foods or preserving foods by addition or mixture to foods, soaking foods and other means.
In such cases, other ingredients except for one, which is the main food stuff of a dietary supplement, could be interpreted as food additives, even if the above statement is affirmed. Therefore Clause 4 of Item 1 is necessary in order to exclude all the ingredients from food additives in such a case. Results of deliberation: According to the ministry concerned, the necessary measures were taken during FY to abolish maximum levels on daily intakes for substances for which a daily requirement is established.
This action is commendable. As a result of deregulation, some vitamins, herbs and minerals have successively been deemed not to be pharmaceuticals under the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law and it is possible to distribute them as foods from March 1, , but according to the complainant, restrictions concerning food additives under the Food Sanitation Law actually apply, and as far as export of products is concerned, the situation remains unchanged.
For its part, the ministry maintains that the complaint is from the perspective of the situation in the United States only, and that the Codex, established to study international specifications for foods, and many other countries, lack a system for dietary supplements like that described in the complaint, and that where some ingredients contained in dietary supplements which correspond to food additives are concerned, in many foreign countries other than the United States, only those listed on their positive lists may be used.
Given the decision made by the Office of Market Access, the ministry says that its Study Group on Handling of So-called Dietary Supplements "the Study Group," hereafter is currently studying dietary supplements like vitamins, minerals, herbs and so and that it will make public a final report by April 1, The 2nd Experts Committee meeting of the OTO held in December examined this matter and determined that the ministry's handling of the issue through its Study Group could be a serious issue if the complainant perceives that it goes against the Office of Market Access's decision.
The Committee chairman issued an opinion that the ministry should respond in accordance with the intent of the Office of Market Access's decision. Subsequently, the ministry issued an interim report whose main points were introducing a mandatory warning against excessive ingestion, based on scientific proof, of vitamin, mineral and herbal dietary supplements, and allowing labeling concerning the benefits of nutrients, in order to give consumers more choice.
In accordance with the final report the ministry will make by April 1, , specifications and standards for individual ingredients and labeling standards will be studied with a view to implementing the system and these are planned to be implemented successively. In addition, the Food Sanitation Investigation Council's joint subcommittee on food additives and toxicity will begin studying food additive regulation where so-called dietary supplements are concerned.
Based on the above, the following measures should be taken by the ministry concerning the dietary supplement category. Complainant: Tokyo Chamber of Commerce and Industry 2. Ministry concerned: Ministry of Transport 3. Background: 1 Current situation where port transport business is concerned In order to establish order to port transport business, a license system is used to control entry, under Article 4 of the Port Transport Business Law.
Approval of the Minister of Transport must be obtained to set or change fares and fees for port transport business in the way that the Ministry of Transport ordinance indicates. Regarding port transport business, it recommended abolishing the business license system Supply-Demand Adjustment and adopting a permission system instead, and abolishing the fee approval system and replacing it with a fee filing system. In accordance with the Council's final report, from May the Council for Transport Policy began deliberating on specific approaches for deregulation and compiled its final report on specific measures introducing the market mechanism , for deregulating port transport business in June In order to actualize this final report, the Ministry of Transport submitted a bill to amend the Port Transport Operations Law to the Diet in February It is said that it costs almost as much to ship cargo by sea from foreign ports to Japanese ports as it does to transport the said cargo overland from Japanese ports to neighboring cities inland, and there are same cases where rather than use Japanese ports for transshipment, it is cheaper for shippers to transship at Pusan in neighboring Korea.
Since the cost of port business in Japan is too high, it places imports at a price disadvantage compared to domestic products. Furthermore, cargo transactions are delayed because Sunday and Nighttime operations are insufficient. The market mechanism should be introduced to port business, to reduce port longshoring and transport costs and speed up operations.
The final opinion of the Administrative Reform Council were made in December , but implementing them during is taking too much time. The complainant requests implementation of deregulation at an early date. Results of deliberation: One of the reasons why port business longshoring fees and transport fees are higher in Japan compared to other ports in East Asia is that entry into port business is restricted by the Port Transport Business Law, which means that port business which already have licenses are protected and not exposed to competition from ordinary businesses carrying out similar transport operations, and that operations lack efficiency.
As a result, the costs for using Japanese ports are high compared to international levels, and various port charges in Japan are twice as high as those of Singapore, Pusan, Kaohsiung and others. Whereas ports like Hong Kong and Singapore are handling times the volume of cargo compared to 10 years ago, cargo volume remains at the same level in Kobe and in Yokohama is barely 1.
The status of Japanese ports has declined considerably as far as their use as important physical distribution points is concerned. The longer action is delayed and protection is continued, the more overhaul of efficiency of port business will be delayed and international competitiveness affected even more seriously. Accordingly, a system should be established for boosting efficiency of port business to a level comparable to those in other countries at an early date.
The ministry submitted a bill to amend the Port Transport Business Law, calling for implementing deregulation switching from a business license system to an business permission system [eliminating Supply-Demand Adjustment], changing the fee approval system to a fee filing system first at ordinance-designated specific ports the 9 major ports of Keihin, Chiba, Shimizu, Nagoya, Yokkaichi, Osaka, Kobe, Kammon, and Hakata, which handle the bulk of containerized cargo volume , and for making operations more efficient and improving service by expediting cooperation and consolidation of operators through Business Cooperatives, to the th regular session of the Diet in February , and wishes to implement deregulation during In order to ensure that deregulation is effective, new entry of good, competitive companies into port transport business should be guaranteed, and to avoid formation of cartels and so on, competition among operators should be promoted and maintained, in order to lower charges for port operations, fares and so on, and shorten processing time, as soon as possible.
Based on the above, the ministry should take the following actions where introducing market mechanisms into port business is concerned. Ministry concerned: National Police Agency 3. Background: According to Article , Paragraph 3 of the Road Traffic Law, drivers of motorcycles excluding those equipped with sidecars are prohibited from driving motorcycles carrying any person other than the driver referred to hereafter as "tandem riding" on national expressways and motorways referred to hereafter as "expressways".
Prohibition of tandem riding of motorcycles on expressways was introduced when the Road Traffic Law was revised in , after many fatal accidents related to tandem riding had occurred on the Metropolitan expressway and the Meishin Expressway. Tandem riding of motorcycles on expressways is prohibited for the following reasons: 1 it is difficult to balance well in tandem riding on a motorcycle, and to drive continuously at high speed on expressways extremely heighten the danger of tandem riding.
Complaint: Japan's Road Traffic Law prohibits tandem riding on expressways. However, accident data from Japan and many other countries reveal that it is safer to drive motorcycles and other vehicles on expressways than ordinary roads, and to ride in tandem on motorcycles rather than singly. The following specific grounds make it clear that prohibiting tandem riding of motorcycles in Japan is not an appropriate measure. This prohibition is not in line with international standards and the National Police Agency has failed to show any objective proof regarding safety.
Accordingly, the prohibition on tandem riding of motorcycles on expressways not only unfairly limits American manufacturers' opportunities for entry into the Japanese market, it also lowers the safety of Japanese expressways, and the agency in charge should eliminate this restriction.
However, it is seemed that the complainant is not convinced, given that motorcycles are allowed to be ridden singly on expressways, and that tandem riding is permitted on ordinary roads. On the other hand, the issue of danger due to fatigue of the pillion seat rider as a result of extended running at high speed must be considered. In addition, some motorcycle users in Japan drive dangerously, so the public are strongly convinced that driving motorcycles is unsafe.
Given this situation it is difficult to eliminate the prohibition on tandem riding. Therefore, the agency concerned, together with other organizations and bodies, must take stronger measures to prevent dangerous driving by motorcycle users and establish safe driving practices. Motorcycle users should make efforts to drive more safely and observe good driving manners. It is also necessary to ensure the safety of motorcycle pillion seats, in terms of the actual equipment.
Besides, the usage style for motorcycles may be different in Japan compared to that in the United States and Europe, and there are probably also differences in licensing systems and so on. The OTO Secretariat should conduct a broad study of trends regarding these aspects in other countries.
This complaint was once submitted in , and the Office of Market Access decided in June that "where safety of tandem riding of motorcycles is concerned, the agency concerned should study the safety data submitted by the complainant and review regulations if no problems are found with safety.
Based on the above, the concerned agency and others should take the following measures regarding the prohibition of tandem riding on motorcycles: 1 The agency concerned should promote public relations and enlightening activities in order to improve driving manners among motorcycle users and establish safe driving of motorcycles.
It should also improve driver education, by giving instruction in tandem riding and strengthen enforcement against hazardous driving. Ministry concerned: National Policy Agency 3. Background: Based on the Article 1 of the Enforcement Order for the Law for Securing Custody Space for Vehicles and Related Issues, custody space for a vehicle must be secured within a 2 km radius of the base of its usage [owner's residence].
Complaint: 1 Among camper vehicles which belong to license class 88, many are trailers less than 5. It is difficult to find parking for such vehicles near their owners' residences and if kept near owners' residences, such vehicles could obstruct the smooth flow of traffic. Accordingly, even though they are less than 5. However, this excludes self-propelled vehicles equipped with a motor and applies only to camper-trailers and cargo trailers.
Camper-trailers and cargo trailers are vehicles used infrequently several times a year, at most and since they are not always being towed, they are likely to cause traffic jams or accidents in urban areas with heavy traffic. To avoid such accidents,. Further, there are few parking lots in the center of cities, so keeping such vehicles in suburban parking lots would free up parking space.
However, this type of supervision is expensive and places a great burden on motor home owners. Therefore, measures for simplifying actual supervision should be taken, by permitting a type of supervision involving locking the vehicle wheels by a clump and leaving the key in the care and supervision of a caretaker living nearby and so on, to achieve the same effect as at present. Results of deliberation: Towed camper-trailers are not used on a daily basis, and considering their size when hitched to the towing vehicle, they certainly qualify for special measures concerning certificate of custody space, and therefore this matter needs to be handled realistically.
The agency concerned is currently conducting a study on camping trailer formats and their usage, and its willingness to apply the same special measures to small trailers as to large motor homes if there are no particular problems is a positive step. Regarding whether to recognize the parking lot applied for as the base of using of motor homes, the agency concerned follows standards and makes decisions on a case by case basis.
But where application of the standards in question is concerned, as long as vehicles can be prevented from entering or leaving without restriction in the absence of the caretaker, it is not necessary for a caretaker to be on duty 24 hours a day, and it is also not obligatory to install a fence, and all parties concerned should be informed of this. Based on the above, the agency concerned should take the following measures concerning review of standards, etc. Background: 1 In Japan, regulations call for towed vehicles to be inspected hitched to the towing vehicle at the time of new vehicle registration.
This is because it is impossible for the towed vehicle to move on roads under its own power, and because when checking whether the towed vehicle meets the safety regulations for road vehicles it is necessary to check conformity with said regulations in the hitched state as well. In addition to towing capability, checking for conformity with safety regulations involves ascertaining the minimum turning radius of the towing and towed vehicles when hitched, operation of vehicle lights, control capabilities, extent of field of vision in the rear-view mirror of the towing vehicle and so on.
This certificate contains information on the parking brake of the towing vehicle needed for the towed vehicle. In order to add notations for name and type of multiple towing vehicles on the vehicle inspection certificate of the towed vehicle, it is only necessary to check the said specification certificate when inspecting only the towed vehicle, to determine whether the towing vehicle in question can tow the towed vehicle.
Complaint: Restrictions inherent in the vehicle inspection system make it a de facto impossible for individuals to hitch a camper-trailer towed vehicle rented or otherwise borrowed to their own cars in order to go camping. Camper-trailers are relatively expensive and it is also difficult to find places to keep them, so private ownership is difficult, but many consumers would like to use one if they were available for rental, and there appears to be very strong potential demand.
Also, if consumers went to areas near campgrounds in their own vehicles and were able to rent camper-trailers there, this would have positive effects where road congestion, the environment and so on are concerned. However, the spread of imported camper-trailers for such uses is impeded.
But out of all items, except for towing capacity, which safety regulations specify must be checked in the hitched state, only the vehicle's minimum turning radius depends on the performance of the towing vehicle. Operation of vehicle lights can be checked during new vehicle registration of the towed vehicle by using an available towing vehicle. Scope of the field of vision of the rear-view mirror can be set adequately following instructions in the user's manual or other materials.
Accordingly, there is no need to check any of these regulations in the hitched state. In the United States and Europe, towing vehicles carry labeling regarding towing capacity, and users can select the type of towed vehicle appropriate for the towing capacity of their vehicle. Thus, the system should be changed to allow independent inspection of towing and towed vehicles at the time of new vehicle registration.
Provisions should also be made for mandatory labeling of towing capacity on towing vehicles, to allow consumers to freely select and use towed vehicles. However, the figures which must be noted on the certificate require complex calculations that is asked a specialist for the vehicle must be taken in for inspection, and so on. But regarding vehicles manufactured these days, these figures can most likely be calculated from the weight of the towing and towed vehicles. Accordingly, measures should be taken to make it unnecessary to draw up a hitching specification certificate, by using a conversion chart showing the weights of the towing and towed vehicles to clarify cases in which the towing vehicle has the required weight for towing the towed vehicle, in order to lighten the burden involved in preparing this certificate.
When doing so, measures should also be taken to loosen regulations for the parking brake when hitched in the current regulations, since it is excessive for towing the towed vehicle. Results of deliberation According to the ministry concerned, since the main type of trailer used in Japan so far has been large semi-trailers used for transporting cargo, insufficient consideration had been given to camper-trailers.
Further, in accordance with the safety regulations for road vehicles running performance, brake strength and so on are necessary to ensure safety when the vehicles are hitched, and the hitching specification certificate is needed in order to check safety efficiently. But given that camper-trailers have become much more prevalent in recent years, there is some leeway for simplifying procedures pertaining to meeting s regulations in the hitched state for lightweight camper-trailers, based on their weight, brake system and minimum turning radius and on the presumption that they are safe.
This issue will be examined with a view to simplification, by studying the correlation between vehicle performance and vehicle weight. When new products cannot be handled within the framework of existing systems, it is necessary to review those systems. In such cases, safety must be ensured, but no long periods should be taken to examine whether to introduce in Japan methods which are already in use in Europe and the United States.
Agency concerned: National Police Agency 2. Background: Since the maximum weight of vehicles which may be towed by holders of an ordinary driver's license is kg, drivers must obtain a separate license for towing camper-trailers which usually weigh approximately 2 tons.
However, there is currently only one type of towing license, which places no restrictions on the weight of the towed vehicle, and since drivers wishing to obtain a towing license must learn advanced driving skills which are not necessarily needed when towing a camper-trailer, the complainant stated that separate categories of towing licenses based on the weight of the towed vehicle should be established.
In the comprehensive review of work on complaints before the OTO carried out in , the Office of Market Access had decided that a study concerning establishing separate categories of towing licenses should be initiated as soon as possible, and that a report on study findings be presented to MAOC during A total of individuals - applicants for new licenses and persons renewing - were surveyed.
New license applicants were asked to answer a multiple answer question concerning the type of vehicle they were planning to drive after obtaining a towing licenses, and Among the 6, accidents involving towing by large vehicles weighing 3 tons or more , the fatality rate was 3. Among the 2, accidents involving towing by sub-compact vehicles weighing under 3 tons , the fatality rate was 0.
Most towed vehicles are large vehicles. The number of vehicles which may be towed by small vehicles is small. Therefore, although the ratio of fatal accidents to total accidents is small in the case of small vehicles, the rate of accidents occurring during towing is not low, considering that towing is infrequent. Results of deliberation: According to the agency concerned, approximately 30, persons obtain a 1st class 1 towing license every year.
The vehicle used for the towing license test is not very large the towing vehicle weighs 3. On the other hand, the agency wishes to conduct a separate study on accident rates for camper-trailers and for other types of towed vehicles exceeding kg in weight and to investigate whether there are differences in driving skills for the respective types of towed vehicles.
The issue in this case is that only one type of test towing and towed vehicles respectively is used when testing for towing licenses. Accordingly, in addition to clarifying the issues, a further study should be conducted to determine whether it is necessary to establish categories based on the weight of the towed vehicle, when towing license testing is carried out.
Based on the above, the following actions should be taken regarding establishing different towing license categories: 1 The agency concerned should study whether it is necessary to establish categories based on the weight of the towed vehicle when towing license testing is carried out, and reach a conclusion during Agency concerned: Economic Planning Agency 2. Background: 1 Because large towed trailer homes are not very common in Japan, their legal position is not clear.
Some authorities consider them "vehicles," since they have wheels, and are able to move on roads, whereas others consider them "buildings," since they remain in a certain location and are used there for a certain period of time. When trailer homes are treated as vehicles, they come under the provisions of the Road Transport Vehicle Law. When treated as buildings, some trailer homes which, based on their size, configuration, state of installation are judged capable of moving voluntarily at any time, were judged as not coming under the provisions of the Building Standards Law.
This is informed by a directive from the Ministry of Construction in March to all concerned parties. However, this alone is insufficient and the interpretations of businesses and of government bureaucrats as to the legal position of trailer homes regarding location of installation and aim of installation continue to differ, leading to on-site disputes concerning application of the law.
Contents of report: 1 The study committee determined that the issue requiring urgent action is whether all trailer homes at campgrounds are buildings. Under current laws, trailer homes themselves are not immediately considered buildings, their classification being determined by type of use and so on. The Report of the Study Committee Concerning Regulations on Trailer Homes will be sent to local public bodies, and to other organizations connected with trailer homes, in order to once again inform the parties concerned of the intent of the Ministry of Construction's directive.
It is too early to introduce new laws and it is appropriate to deal with the issue within the framework of existing laws for the time being. Most camper-trailers in Japan in the past few years are imported. Results of deliberation: Concerning the application of existing laws to new products, there are always 'gray zones', and at this point unforeseen difficulties may arise concerning the use of trailer homes for camping in the future.
For the time being, although it may be too early to make new laws or establish public standards concerning trailer homes, legal research concerning trailer homes should be continued. Based on the above, the ministries and agencies concerned should take the following measures to prevent confusion at the stage of applying the Ministry of Construction's directive on trailer homes before it occurs, and to promote the healthy growth of the trailer home market and create an environment conducive to promoting imports.
The Report of the Study Committee Concerning Regulations on Trailer Homes has been sent to local public bodies, and to other organizations connected with trailer homes, but efforts should be made to prevent confusion at the stage of applying the Ministry of Construction's directive on trailer homes before it occurs, by sending out the Report once more to inform all parties thoroughly. Ministry concerned: Ministry of Finance 3.
Background: When cargo is imported, the importer or the customs broker as the importer's proxy referred to hereafter as "customs broker" uses NACCS Nippon Automated Cargo Clearance System to make an import declaration to customs. Customs examines the contents of the declaration and conducts physical examinations if necessary.
When the import cargo is containerized cargo imported loaded in a container , there are three types of physical examinations: sample examination, sampling examination and whole examination involving removal of cargo from the container.
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You can be sure that most market participants closely monitor the 1. European exporters such as Mercedes might worry that their products will not sell abroad if the EUR strengthens. The point is that a lot of market interest is clustering around a particular level. You know this because the market is hovering around that level for a long time.
Besides, spotting a pattern is just the beginning. What you do next will have a profound impact on your results as well as your perception of the reliability of chart patterns. How to Use Chart Patterns in Forex Chart patterns can serve as a basis for a wide variety of trading systems. They can help you carve out an edge over the market and make money in forex.
While they are no silver bullet, they provide some information, which is better than having no information. Chart patterns are often simple formations such as two failed attempts to achieve a new high price.
What is the timeframe? Are other negative factors accompanying the pattern? How does the risk relate to the potential reward? Are important news releases scheduled? Successful trading systems that incorporate chart patterns also account for a variety of factors. We recommend that you bookmark our guides on how to create a trading strategy and how to create a trading plan. That way, you can read them later, when you are finished with this article.
A few notes before we get started: Entry and exit points With each chart pattern, you can use the formation height and add it to the breakout price to get the profit target. They look at how volume changes during the formation of the pattern, and might reject or favor set-ups based on that. While this is fine, the forex market is decentralized. This means that whatever volume data you have, it relates to only a small portion of the market such as volume at your broker and might not represent the entire market.
An art, not a science Chart patterns are subjective, meaning that different traders might do and interpret things differently. For example, someone might draw trendlines using wicks, while someone else might use closing prices. Instead of worrying about every little detail, focus on what certain formations reveal about the balance between buyers and sellers.
Sometimes you have to be more flexible and throw in some extra reps or rest a bit more. The same goes for chart patterns. Every situation will be slightly different, which is fine. Double Top The double top is one of the simplest patterns on charts. How to read the pattern: When the price reaches a new high, it shows conviction behind the uptrend. Each trend alternates between impulse and consolidation moves, so the correction following the high is to be expected.
The situation turns interesting when the price resumes its trend and reaches the high again. Instead of breaking through and putting in another higher high, the buying pressure evaporates and the price is unable to surpass its previous high. As you might know, uptrends are characterized by higher highs and higher lows.
When the price fails to break above the prior high, it breaks the pattern of an uptrend and signals possible weakness. Perhaps it will take a bit more time for buyers to attain a new high or perhaps sellers are about to take control. You can assume that sellers are strong enough to reverse the trend or at least drive the market into an extended consolidation.
Both cases can be a good set-up for a short trade. The double top pattern is completed when the neckline breaks. Traders often set a profit target by measuring the distance between the neckline and the high of the pattern and projecting it to the neckline break.
Do not copy without permission. Double Bottom The double bottom is the mirror image of the double top. How to read the pattern: When the price reaches a new low, it shows conviction behind the downtrend. As we have pointed out, trends consist of impulse and consolidation moves. The situation turns interesting when the price resumes its trend and reaches the low again.
This is problematic because the downtrend should follow the pattern of lower highs and lower lows. When the price fails to break below the prior low, it signals a possible issue with the trend. That said, this is not yet a buy signal. Now you can assume that buyers are strong enough to reverse the trend or at least drive the market into an extended consolidation.
In both cases, you can favor a long trade. The double bottom pattern is completed when the neckline breaks. Traders often set a profit target by measuring the distance between the neckline and the low of the pattern and projecting it to the neckline break. Take a look at this guide Head and Shoulders The head and shoulders pattern is a fairly complex formation consisting of three peaks, with the center peak being the highest of the three.
This forms the left shoulder. From the low point of the left shoulder, the bullish advance continues and significantly surpasses the previous high. After some time, the price reaches a new peak and now enters a more prolonged consolidation. This forms the head. A final advance from the low of the head starts but it quickly fails, and the market turns down. This forms the right shoulder. The right shoulder is lower than the head and roughly in line with the left shoulder.
The pattern is completed when the price breaks below the neckline, which is the line connecting the low of the shoulders. The neckline can slope in any direction and is a good predictor of the severity of the price decline. You can project the height of the pattern to the neckline break and set your profit target accordingly. An example of a successful head and shoulder set-up is shown below: For a beginner trader, the head and shoulders pattern might be more difficult to recognize.
You can always zoom out a bit from the price action or switch to a line chart. Inverse Head and Shoulders The inverse head and shoulders pattern is the bearish equivalent of the head and shoulders. It can be found at the bottom of downtrends and indicates a bearish-to-bullish trend reversal.
How to read the pattern: Following a falling market, the price bumps into a bottom and then rises to form the left shoulder. From the high of the left shoulder, a bearish decline starts. It progresses significantly below the previous low to form the head of the pattern. Then the price begins to rise again. A final decline from the high of the head starts to form the right shoulder.
This trough is higher than the head and about equal to the bottom of the left shoulder. From the bottom of the right shoulder, the price starts to rise again. Once it breaks above the connected high points of the pullbacks neckline , the pattern is complete. Below are an example of a winning inverse head and shoulder set-up: We have a separate guide on Head and Shoulders patterns that you can access via this link if you want to learn more about them.
Rising Wedge The rising wedge pattern forms when the market makes higher highs and higher lows within a shrinking range that slopes upward. This pattern is trickier than those we have discussed so far because its signal depends on the trend. That is, a rising wedge in an uptrend signals reversal while a rising wedge in a downtrend signals continuation. The price makes higher highs and higher lows, which fulfills the characteristics of a healthy uptrend.
The reason the rising wedge acts as a reversal signal despite being indicative of a strong trend is the extent of the price increase. If you take a closer look at the pattern, you will notice that the lower trendline rises at a steeper angle. While the market keeps reaching higher highs, the subsequent consolidations are shorter and shorter.
This happens when investors are so enthusiastic that every time the market dips, they rush to buy and immediately bid up the price. Unfortunately, this can go on for only so long before the interest dries up and the market collapses. Every trend has a point where everybody who wanted to buy has already bought. This is when short-selling intensifies and the market begins ticking down.
Thus, people cash out on their long positions, which further fuels the downward pressure. The rising wedge marks this turning point and allows you to position yourself accordingly. The example below will illustrate: How to read the pattern in a downtrend : The rising wedge in a downtrend is created by the same overconfident buyers, except that this time the market is in a downtrend. Each time the market begins consolidating after a drop, traders are speculating on a reversal.
If these traders are in the majority, the market can indeed reverse. The reason for this is fairly simple. There is no reason to risk getting stopped out by the imminent correction. It makes more sense to wait until the correction occurs and enter at a better price. When enough traders think this way, the selling pressure will ease, allowing buyers to bid up the price. When buyers finally run out of steam, however, all the traders sitting on the sidelines will flock to the market with their shorts.
This is why the rising wedge suggests continuation in a downtrend. It marks the point where the bull run fails, and sellers force the market back into trend. Here is an example: Falling Wedge The falling wedge pattern forms when the market makes lower highs and lower lows within a shrinking range that slants downward. As the price moves to the downside, the two trendlines that connect the highs and the lows will eventually converge.
This suggests continuation if the trend is up, or reversal if the trend is down. How to read the pattern in an uptrend : Often, after a new high is reached, the market will enter a period of consolidation. The falling wedge forms when this temporary decrease happens in a rather aggressive manner but loses its momentum before it threatens the trend.
When people see that the consolidation is about to end, they begin buying at the discounted price, which results in the quick price jump at the end of the pattern AKA the breakout. The following example will help you spot a falling wedge in an uptrend: How to read the pattern in a downtrend : A falling wedge in a downtrend occurs after a severe price drop. It signals an intensifying buying pressure, which is not surprising, as the price at this point is heavily depressed.
When the supply finally dries up, invigorated buyers lift the price, providing you with a chance to catch a market reversal. We prepared an example so that you can familiarize yourself with the downtrend falling wedge. Go to this ultimate guide to learn even more about trading wedges, including strategies for different trading styles. It forms when the price quickly shoots up and then begins consolidating. The advance is expected to continue after the consolidation. How to read the pattern: The first part of the pattern is the flagpole, which is a huge advance that breaks through a previous resistance level.
This huge advance is usually triggered by a news event. Following the advance, the price goes through a consolidation phase that looks like a flag — hence, the name of the pattern. The flag consists of two parallel trendlines that point slightly down and retraces a small portion of the trend. Note that if the retracement is too substantial, the flag is invalidated, as a reversal becomes increasingly likely.
When the price breaks out from the flag to the upside, the pattern is finished. This indicates that the market is about to make another impulse move in the trend direction. It forms when the price tumbles and then embarks on a modest rise. The selloff is expected to continue after the consolidation.
How to read the pattern: A bearish flag pattern has the same components as its bullish counterpart. However, everything points in the opposite direction. The market experiences a negative surprise shock, which results in a sharp decline. This is the flagpole. Following this decline, the price goes through a consolidation phase consisting of two parallel trendlines that point slightly upward.
This is the flag itself. The flag must retrace only a small portion of the trend, as an extended consolidation might lead to a reversal. The pattern is finished when the price breaks out from the flag to the downside.
An example of the bearish flag: Warning: Flag patterns can be quite dangerous due to the heightened volatility. Plus, they tend to be paired with unfavorable market conditions: slippage and wide spreads. Be very cautious if you decide to trade them. In this case, our dedicated flag pattern guide is the ideal place to advance your knowledge. Bullish Pennant The bullish pennant looks like a short triangle bounded by two converging trend lines. It occurs in advancing markets and hints at a price move in the direction of the prior trend leg.
How to read the pattern: Pennants are pretty similar to flags in their structure. They, too, are preceded by a strong upward move resembling a flagpole. After the upward move, buyers pause to catch their breath and the market begins consolidating.
This is where the difference lies between the two patterns. In the case of bullish pennants, the consolidation phase shows a less intensive effort to reverse the trend. Remember that flags usually form in high-volatility situations such as news releases. Traders often overreact to positive news; thus, the price jump is quickly met with aggressive short selling. How do Forex Chart Timeframes Work? In the example above, we showed you a daily candlestick Forex chart.
However, charts can also be represented on other timeframes, which can be as short as one minute and as long as a year. However, the most popular timeframes are the 5-minute, minute, minute, 1-hour, 4-hour, daily, weekly, and monthly ones. Simply said, the timeframe of the chart determines which data the candlesticks use for their graphical representation.
The following chart shows how the 4-hour timeframe zooms into the daily. Beginners make the typical mistake of trading on very short timeframes, such as the 1-minute one. As timeframes this short are of little use for most types of analysis, it is best to start with longer ones. The reason for this is that candlestick charts are the most popular type of chart among Forex traders, as they represent the price action in an aesthetically pleasing way, which makes it easy to analyse the chart, identify chart patterns, and so on.
Line Chart The line chart is the most basic of all chart types. However, the simplicity of line charts is also their advantage. Bar Chart A bar chart more resembles a candlestick chart, with the main difference being that a bar chart has no solid body like a candlestick. It shows the opening, high, low, and closing price of a period.
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