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Non investing amplifier level shifter with gateАвтор: Akigor | Category: Betting odds on super bowl | Октябрь 2, 2012
Thus far we have used only one of the operational amplifiers inputs to connect to the amplifier, using either the “inverting” or the “non-inverting” input. Buffers are used when needed to meet non-function requirements, often speed (or input / output impedance, which affects speed). An abstracted. The output of the op-amp drives the Gate of the transistor. Figure non-inverting voltage to current converter. CROWD INVESTING DEUTSCHLAND ALLES
Manual Gate Manual Gate The left picture shows the basic circuit of a manual gate. The Ohm resistor serves as a short circuit protector. The right picture is expanded by a LED display that lights up while the button is pressed. Or-wired sockets Or-wired sockets The left picture shows the circuit of "or-wired" sockets.
This circuit is useful to combine gate or trigger signals. The incoming signals are or-wired, i. If none of the inputs is high the 10k pull-down resistor pulls the output to GND, i. For most applications this resistor is not required as the input load of the following module acts as pull-down resistor. But it should be added to be on the safe side.
As a modification of this circuit even "and-wired" sockets can be realized. But this type of combination is not used very often: all inputs have to be "high" to turn the output to "high". For all other conditions the output remains "low". On this the diodes have to be flipped i. This measure is necessary in order that unused sockets read "low". Otherwise unused sockets would read "high" because of the pull-up resistor. For example a multiple A can be modified with 7 additional diodes and one resistor to obtain seven or-wired sockets and one output socket.
For this the pcb tracks between the eight multiple sockets have to be interrupted not the GND connections, only the "hot" connections and re-wired with the diodes and the resistor. Non-inverting power amplifier This is a simple non-inverting power amplifier that can be used to drive loads like light bulbs, LED bars, fairy lights, motors, magnets, relays or other loads. Pay attention that the connected load is suitable for 12V supply voltage. Otherwise the supply voltages of the operational amplifier and the power transistors have to be adapted.
If only positive output voltages are required Q2 can be omitted. If an operational amplifier is available in the preceding module e. The maximum output current depends upon the specifications of the power transistors. Pay attention that the power supply has to be able to deliver the additional load current! Attention: The output is not short circuit protected. If a standard A jack socket is used the output connection has to be established before power is turned on! During the insertion of a plug into the jack socket a short circuit is made for a short time.
Therefore another type of socket is recommended for the output not the jack socket shown in the picture. If only positive voltages referenced to GND are required e. This circuit can be used with all module outputs. A picture of the A with LED strip will follow soon.
Module modifications 4. General modifications not for one module only 4. Changing the sensitivity of manual controls, control voltage inputs and audio inputs The following picture shows the control voltage input circuit for most of the A modules: P1 is the manual control of the corresponding parameter e. P1 generates the voltage U1. J1 is the first input socket for the external control voltage. P2 is the corresponding attenuator. The slider of P2 outputs the voltage U2. Additional CV inputs with our without attenuators may be available e.
The dashed line in the picture is the common point in the circuit where all CV's are added. The output voltage of the circuit output of O1 is used to control the corresponding parameter tune, filter frequency, gain If for example all resistors are 47k a common value in the A the sensitivity is 1 for each input.
Provided that R3 remains unchanged the resistors R1 and R2 determine the sensitivity of the corresponding control resp. Reducing the resistance of R1 resp. R2 increases the sensitivity of the manual control P1 resp. Increasing the resistance of R1 resp. R2 reduces the sensitivity. R2 simply has to be changed. Changing the resistance of R3 has the opposite effect and affects the sensivity of both the manual control and CV input.
The audio input circuit for most A modules is similar but the manual control P1 is absent a DC offset would not make sense for an audio input, audio signals are AC signals. Normally only one audio input is available but there are exceptions e. To change the sensitivity of an audio input simply the resistor R2 connected to the slider P2 of the audio input has to be replace. Lowering the input resistors will allow distortion for these moduls too.
Even the input resistors of CV or audio mixers e. Reducing the input resistors R2 type or increasing the feedback resistor R3 type will increase the amplification of the circuit. The factory values of the corresponding resistors R1, R2, R3 for all modules can be found in the A service manual. Insert sockets for external resonance control of filters, phasers and similar modules To enable voltage control of resonance for filters insert sockets in the feedback loop can be used.
The left picture shows the resonance control in a filter or phaser circuit. Essentially it is an attenuator that controls the feedback of the circuit. To enable external control of the resonance external access to the feedback loop is recessary.
For resonance control normally C-law potentiometers are used i. This is the first solution how to install the insert sockets pre resonance control. J1 is connected to the slider of the resonance control. Provided that no plug is inserted into J2 the function of the module is unchanged as the switching contact of J2 is active. As soon as a plug is inserted into J2 the default connection is interrupted and the signal fed to J2 is used as feedback signal.
Consequently J1 and J2 can be used to insert e. The resonance control can be used to adjust the maximum resonance available with different gain settings of the external VCA. But not only a VCA but any audio processing module can be inserted into the feedback loop e. This is another solution how to install the insert sockets post resonance control. The location of the resonance control at the pc board for all modules in question can be found in the A service manual.
For this normally a capacitor is used that connects the two circuits. A usual value would be 2. AC coupling is normally used for audio signals. For audio signals AC coupling has the advantage that unwanted DC shares in the signal are removed.
For some AC processing circuits e. Therefore very often a capacitor can be found in the input stage of such circuits. For control voltages normally only DC coupling can be used as even fixed voltages e. In a module patch each A module can be treated as an electronic circuit that is connected to another one.
Consequently one has to take into consideration the type of coupling AC or DC between modules as the strict differentiation between AC and DC applications os softened for some A modules. Another example is a divider e. Luckily it is not very complicated to switch between AC and DC coupling. All one has to do is to bride i.
The left picture shows how the switch is connected in parallel to the AC coupling capacitor the broken line resistor symbol represents the load to GND that is always available in each circuit as reference to GND. We will add this information also to the user's manual for modules that may be used for both types of coupling. For some circuits resp. A list with the type of coupling for all modules in question will follow soon.
For most of the modules the question about the type of coupling does not arise. But for other modules the type of coupling is not obvious e. VCA, divider, waveshaper. Subsequent bus normalling of modules Only a few modules typically VCOs, envelope generators or Midi interfaces feature access to the CV and Gate signal of the A bus.
For details please refer to the information about the module in question. If another module has to be modified accordingly. The signals Gate and CV are available at the two upper pin pairs of the bus left and right pins are always connected on the bus board and carry the same signal. One has to distinguish between two types of modules the bus connector is always 16 pin : modules with 16 pin male bus connectors modules with 10 pin male bus connectors If the module in question is equipped with a 16 pin male connector both signals CV and gate are available at the upper two pin pairs of the modules bus connector.
One simply has to wire the corresponding pin one of the upper pair for Gate, one of the second pair for CV of the 16 pin connector to signal in question e. If the module in question is equipped with a 10 pin male connector the signals CV and gate are not available at the modules bus connector.
In this case a special bus cable has to be used. The left picture shows how this works. A 16 pin ribbon cable with a 16 pin female connector on one side and a 10 pin female connector on the second side is used. The 10 pin female connector is used to establish the connection between the module and the bus. It is put to the module's 10 pin male connector.
The wire of the 16 pin ribbon cable that corresponds to Gate resp. CV of the bus is connected to the corresponding input e. The wires 15 or 16 are gate, the wires 13 or 14 are CV. The red marked wire is the bottom wire that leads V same for all modules. Pay attention that only one module is allowed to "write" to the same bus signal.
If two or more modules write to the bus this leads to a short circuit of the corresponding outputs. The bus board has available two jumpers located in the middle of the bus board. If these are removed the gate and CV lines are divided and both the left and right part of the bus board are separate bus areas concerning CV and gate.
Similarly, although the input signal changes from low to high at time T3 the output signal at terminal A does not reach a logic high until time T4. Therefore, even though the signals at terminals A and B are complementary in the steady state, there are significant areas of overlap from T1 to T2, and from T3 to T4 where both A and B are both logic 0. In accordance with the present invention, shown in FIG.
The level shift means 20, which produces a level shifted representation, A, of the input signal, and a level shifted representation, B, of the complemented input signal, may be realized by the circuit of FIG. However, it will be appreciated that level shift means 20 may be any level shift means for translating an input logic signal including first and second voltage levels to an output logic signal including third and fourth voltage levels.
Similarly, it will be understood that the logic means 22 preferably is operated at the translated logic signal levels, i. A further detailed specific embodiment of the logic means 22 of FIG. A bistable flip-flop comprising cross-coupled NOR gates 24, 26 is a memory means which stores the past logic state of the input signal from terminal IN. The output, C, from the memory means is defined in a logic 1 state as representing that the input signal at terminal "IN" has a value of logical 0 and will go to a logical 1 at the next transition.
Conversely, a logical 0 at terminal C represents that the input signal is at logical 1 and will go to logical 0 on the next transition. The output logic means portion 28 uses the complementary signals from terminals A and B in combination with the signal from terminal C to generate the output function. To understand the generation of the desired output function obtained at the terminal "OUT" of means 28, reference is made to the level shifted signals at terminals A and B in FIG.
Prior to time T1, the logic signal at terminal B is 0 and the logic signal at terminal A is 1. Between time T1 and T2, the logic signal at terminal B is 0 and the logic signal at terminal A is 0. At time T2, the slow rising signal on terminal B reaches the switching point between logic 0 and logic 1.
Thereafter, from T2 to T3, the logic signal at terminal B is 1 and the logic signal at terminal A is 0. At time T3, VIN switches from logical 0 to logical 1. Between time T3 and T4, the logic signal at terminal B is 0 and the logic signal at terminal A is 0. At time T4, the slow rising signal on terminal A reaches the switching point between logic 0 and logic 1. From time T4 on, the logic signal at terminal B is 0 and the logic signal at terminal A is 1.
Note that A and B can never be logical 1 simultaneously and that transitions of the input signal are indicated by A and B both being logical 0 simultaneously. The sequence of operation of the output function logic 28 responsive to an input signal pulse can be visualized as follows: when C is low corresponding to a condition where a fast transition at terminal A is expected and A and B both go low, then the complement of A is gated to the output.
When B goes high therefore A and B are not both low anymore B, which is now in a steady state, is gated to the output. Some finite time later, the signal at the output of NOR gate 26 Co, changes to logical 0 in response to terminal B going high. A short time thereafter, equal to the delay of NOR gate 24, C changes to a logical 1. Therefore, the next expected transition of the input signal is a low-to-high transition. When A and B both go low again, with C at this time at a logical 1, then B the fast transition is gated to the output terminal.
The resulting output signal, shown in FIG. It can be seen that the embodiment described is an inverting level shift circuit, having substantially equal high-to-low and low-to-high propagation delays, equal to TP1 and TP2 respectively. The desired output function is depicted formally in the Karnaugh map and state transition diagram of FIG.
In each box, the output function is represented as a function of the variables A, B and C. An H represents logic 1 of the desired output, L represents logic 0 of the desired output, and X1 through X4 indicate chosen variables. The arrows represent transitions of the internal state logic responsive to transitions of the input signal. When the logical input signal, IN, equals 0 the steady state output is high as indicated in steady state 1.
State X1 is assigned a logic 0 value so that when B,A changes to 0,1, the output function will remain low until C changes to 0 and steady state 2 is attained. Similarly, when IN goes low again, A and B are both 0, but now C is 0, corresponding to transition state 2.
The output returns to steady state 1 via state X4, which is assigned a logic 1 to maintain a logic high output function. States X2 and X3, which are true "don't care" states since A and B cannot both be logical 1 simultaneously, are assigned a logical 0 value to minimize the logic gate realization of the output function. Such logical embodiments are but examples of the many ways to realize the output function as defined by the Karnaugh map of FIG.
In FIG. Such tree logic is particularly suited for fabrication in CMOS technology. When C is low corresponding to a condition where a fast transition at terminal A is expected transistor P5 is conditioned for conduction and N4 is conditioned for non-conduction.
The output is therefore the complement of A via "inverter" pair P4,N3. Logic signal B next goes high. Inverter 30 supplies B to the gate electrodes of P3 and N5 which respectively turns on P3 and turns off N5. Flip-flop output C responds shortly after B goes high by logic signal C going high.
When C is high corresponding to a condition where a fast transition on terminal B is expected , transistor P5 is conditioned for non-conduction and N4 is conditioned for conduction. At this time A is low so that transistor P4 is on and N3 is off.
The output is therefore logically equal to B via the "inverter" formed by transistors P3,N5. Complementary transistors P7 and N7 form an "inner" inverter in series between transistors P6 and N6, which latter transistors form an "outer" inverter. Therefore, the output is determined by the inner inverter P7, N7 which output is logically equivalent to the signal from terminal B.
Therefore, during such time A and B are both 0, the output is logically equivalent to the complemented flip-flop output, C. After the transition period, A and B first change to their steady state before the flip-flop 24,26 changes to its next state. Thus, by the time C has changed to the next state, the "inner" inverter has already changed to the proper logical value so that the output function makes a proper transition between logic states, as indicated by the Karnaugh map and state transition diagram of FIG.
Of particular interest is the number of gate delays between input and output terminals. Recall that the signal path from input to output is different depending on whether the fast edge of the level shifted input signal or the fast edge of the inverted level shifted input signal is selected for propagation to the output terminal.
For each path there are three gate delays. A first path is from terminal IN1 via inverter 50, through level shifting inverter P2', N2', and through tree logic transistors P8, N8. The second path is from terminal IN1, through level shifting inverter P1', N1', through inverter 52, and through tree logic transistors P10, N9. Propagation delays of the individual circuit elements are chosen so that the propagation delay from input to output for both high-to-low and low-to-high transitions of the input signal are substantially equal.
J3 are standard inputs.
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|Loja bitcoin||For details please refer to the information about the module in question. And op amp outputs are rarely compatible with logic. In this arrangement, attenuation and summation are separated: a voltage divider acts as an attenuator and the loop acts as a simple series voltage summer. Gain vs Frequency Characteristics The gain of operational amplifier IC is not constant and varies depending on the frequency of input signal. Examples are the timer and the switch debounce circuit. To bypass the internal pre-amplifier resistor R2 has to be more info e. The difference in size tends to compensate for the smaller gate drive available for N1, so that during switching, N1 can properly sink the current supplied by P1.|
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The thing to be done Verify the HV pin output on the bi-directional logic converter Verify the LV pin output on the bi-directional logic converter Verifies the non-inverting op-amp level-shifter output Modify the non-inverting op-amp Level-shifter Verify the HV pin output on the bi-directional logic converter Make a circuit like Figure 1 on the breadboard.
Then do the verification by measure the LV pin voltage and providing input variations on the HV pin. The following results are obtained: From the above table, it can be concluded that if the input voltage is below 1. If the voltage is handled 1.
If the input voltage is 1. Depending how close is the 1. Verify the LV pin output on the bi-directional logic converter Make a circuit like Figure 1 on the breadboard. Then do the verification by measure the HV pin voltage and providing input variations on the LV pin. The following results are obtained: From the above table, it can be concluded that if the input voltage is below 2.
If the voltage is handled 2. If the input voltage is 2. Depending how close is the value of 2. Verifies the non-inverting op-amp level-shifter output Create a circuit on a breadboard like Figure 2. Then verify the circuit by providing variations in the input voltage, the following results are obtained: Figure 3 2. The left side of R2 must see a ground or virtual ground or low impedance in order to achieve a consistent gain of throughout its range. The following circuit will provide the virtual ground and a way to still adjust the offset voltage.
Circuit In the above circuit the input of R2 sees a virtual ground from the output of U1B since opamp outputs are typically a very low impedance and the pot connected to the follower circuit of U1B provides the offset required.
I will now show how to interface to an analog meter display. To understand how to calculate meter resistors, study the Meter Multiplier page. In Example A above, the equipment is providing a 0 to 2 volt output. The telemetry monitoring circuit requires a 0 to 10 volt swing for a full scale reading.
An analog meter will show a full scale reading when the equipment is sourcing 2 volts for a full scale reading. Use the following circuit below. Circuit Since there is a 0 to 10 volt amplified source, that voltage source will give the results desired. In this example the meter internal resistance is ohms. The total current Rt through the R5 and the meter is 50 microamps or 0. Subtract the internal meter resistance of and you will need a resistance of , ohms for R5. In the real world it will be hard to find resistor values with the results shown.
It may be necessary to series or parallel some values to get the desired resistance. The EIA table shown below are of common resistor values that can be used. Multiply by. Example: From the above table if you desire a , ohm resistance, a , ohm and a 10, ohm resistor in series comes to , ohms.
If more accuracy is required, round off the , to , Take ten percent of , which is 20K and use this as a pot value. Take half the value of the pot which is 10K and subtract it from , which is , A K resistor and the 20K pot will sweep through the desired range K to K to accurately calibrate the meter to 10 volts full scale.
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